The Telangana region is believed to have been mentioned in the Mahabharata as the Telinga Kingdom which said to be inhabited by the tribe known as Telavana and said to have fought on the Pandava side in the great war of Mahabharata. It is also evident from the fact that there is Pandavula Guhalu in Warangal district (where the Pandavas spent their life in exile (Lakkha Gruham).
And, in Treta yuga, it is believed that Rama, Sita and Lakshmana, spent their life in exile at Parnashala on the banks of Godavari river which is about 25 km from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District which falls in the Telangana region.
Telangana region has been heartland for many great dynasties like Sathavahanas, Kakatiyas. Kotilingala in Karimnagar was the first capital of the Sathavahanas before Dharanikota. Excavations at Kotilingala revealed coinage of Simukha, a Satavahana emperor.
The region experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiyas, a great Telugu dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 CE to 1323. Ganapatideva was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Cholas in the year 1210 who accepted his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta and Anakapalle in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar & Bastar (in modern day Chattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam & Tripurantakam, near Ongole in the south. It was also during his reign that the Golkonda fort was first constructed by the Kakatiyas.
Telangana, then came under Muslim rule in 14th century for the first time by Delhi Sultanate followed by Bahmanis, Qutb Shahis and Mughals. As the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate in the early 18th century, the Muslim Asafjahi dynasty established a separate state known as Hyderabad. Later Hyderabad entered into a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the British Empire, and was the largest and most populous princely state in India. Telangana was never under direct British rule, unlike Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, which were part of British India's Madras Presidency.
On December 9, 2009, the Government of India announced that the process for the formation of Telangana state will be initiated upon introduction and passage of a separation statement by the state assembly of AP. However, on December 23, 2009, the Government of India announced that the issue of a new state will be addressed only after a consensus is reached, thus effectively putting the formation of the new state in abeyance.